Nuka Research analyzed how frequently conditions that may preclude marine oil spill response occur in the U.S. Arctic Ocean. This oil spill response gap, or response viability, project began with a literature review to establish operating limits for mechanical recovery, dispersant, and in-situ burning spill response tactics in terms of winds, waves, air temperature, sea ice, and visibility. The literature review included studies conducted for BSEE, other government entities in Europe, as well as industry research and development reports. Following the literature review, Nuka Research combined environmental datasets from both onshore and offshore locations in the U.S. Arctic to estimate the percentage of time during which environmental conditions may impede or preclude effective oil spill response using available response technologies. The final report, revised following a BSEE-facilitated peer review process, is available on this page.